A partir de 1º de junho de 2015, os trabalhadores domésticos brasileiros passaram a ter direitos garantidos por lei. Isso porque a presidente Dilma Rouseff sancionou a regulamentação chamada de “PEC das Domésticas”.
Essa PEC entrou em vigor em 2013, mas alguns temas ainda precisavam ser regulamentados. Dois anos depois, as novas regras foram finalmente alinhadas e aprovadas e agora trazem sete mudanças – tanto para quem trabalha na área, quanto para quem é empregador desse tipo de profissional, tão importante para os lares domésticos brasileiros.
A lei entrou em vigor no dia 1° de junho, entretanto ainda não é preciso começar a recolher FGTS e outros tributos novos até que o Simples Doméstico seja regulamentado em 120 dias. É necessário, então, continuar pagando o INSS como de costume. A exigência desses pagamentos que serão listados em detalhes logo abaixo, de acordo com a nova lei, entra em vigor após esses quatro meses.
Veja a seguir o que muda:
Demissão sem justa causa
A multa rescisória das domésticas ficou definida da seguinte forma: o patrão fica obrigado a depositar, todo mês, 3,2% sobre salário do empregado num fundo destinado à multa rescisória. O montante será repassado ao empregado em caso de demissão sem justa causa. Nas empresas, a multa rescisória é equivalente a 40% sobre o FGTS.
A colaboradora doméstica deverá ser incluída no FGTS (Fundo de Garantia do Tempo de Serviço). Porém, isso só será obrigatório depois que o Conselho Curador do FGTS lançar uma regulamentação sobre o tema. O empregador deverá recolher, então, 8% do salário do empregado para este fim. No total, o empregador deverá pagar 20% do salário do empregado em tributos (8% de FGTS + 8% de INSS + 0,8% de seguro contra acidente + 3,2% relativos à rescisão contratual). Os valores serão todos pagos num único boleto, através do Super Simples Doméstico, a ser criado nos próximos quatro meses.
O trabalho noturno (das 22h às 5h) passa a valer 20% a mais que o trabalho diurno. Além disso, a hora de quem trabalha à noite é mais curta, com duração de 52,5 minutos.
Caso sejam dispensados sem justa causa, os empregados domésticos terão direito a seguro-desemprego de um salário mínimo durante três meses.
Acidentes de trabalho
O empregador passa a ser obrigado a pagar 0,8% sobre o salário do empregador para o seguro de acidentes de trabalho. Com isso, as domésticas ficam cobertas por mais este benefício.
Os empregados domésticos passam a ter direito a esse direito, pago pelo empregador. Com ele, o trabalhador recebe um valor a mais para cada filho de até 14 anos, ou para filhos inválidos de qualquer idade. Hoje, para quem recebe até R$ 725,02, o salário-família é de R$ 37,18 por filho.
As horas de trabalho dos empregados durante viagens com a família do empregador poderão ser compensadas após o término da viagem. Além disso, nesse período a remuneração será acrescida em 25%, e o empregador não poderá descontar dela despesas com alimentação, transporte e hospedagem.
Outros pontos já estavam assegurados com a PEC aprovada em 2013, mas foram confirmados com a lei complementar. Dentre eles estão: a jornada de trabalho de 8 horas diárias e 44 horas semanais, e o direito a férias remuneradas, licença-maternidade e horas extras.
A lei também define mais especificamente quem é considerado trabalhador doméstico: são aqueles que trabalham mais de dois dias por semana na mesma casa.
Fontes: com informações dos portais Exame.com e Globo.com .
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